We think it is critically important to protect underage youth, their families and communities from the harms associated with the irresponsible consumption of alcohol.
We also think it is important to acknowledge a lack of consensus around the world about what legal drinking age limits should be, and how they are enforced. Legislated drinking and purchase limits reflect local societies and their collective values as well as culturally-influenced drinking patterns, and as such, vary fromÂ region to region. The complexity of this issue is compounded by distinctions made between on-premise consumption and off-premise purchase, as well as the fact that some jurisdictions make allowances for alcohol consumed by minors with a parent present and/or inside the family home.
Finally, while the research consistently reinforces the importance of visible and effective enforcement of minimum drinking age laws, the practice of enforcing such laws tends to be inconsistent, with varying degrees of public visibility. Moreover, researchers and authorities worldwide continue to emphasize the importance of enforcement efforts occurring in a context of complementary activitiesâ€”such as education and prevention efforts and community- and school-based intervention programs.
BASED ON THESE FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS, BROWN-FORMAN SUPPORTS AND ENCOURAGES:1
The adoption of a legal drinking age of at least 18-years old globally
We see drinking as something which requires a certain level of maturity in order to do so responsibly.
In countries where no such limits exist, we will (either alone or with others who share this objective) encourage governments to introduce a minimum purchase age and to enforce it.
Clearly defined drinking age limits, regardless of a productâ€™s alcohol type or volume
Specific â€”and clear communication ofâ€”minimum legal drinking ages in all jurisdictions around the world.
We believe that â€œalcohol is alcohol is alcoholâ€ and there should be no false distinction between equivalent amounts of alcohol in a standard serving of spirits, wine or beer (www.standarddrinks.com).
Consistent age limits for neighboring jurisdictions
Within any given country, we encourage jurisdictions to give serious consideration to setting age limits which are consistent with their neighboring jurisdictions.
Even in countries where the legal drinking age is lower than 18-years old â€“ or has not been established â€“ directing beverage alcohol marketing to people who are at least 18-years old
We think being a responsible corporate citizen in this way is not only the right thing to do, but critical to our brand-building mission and continued success.
Education and prevention
Ongoing and continually updated education and prevention initiatives supported by the private sector, public agencies, and private-public partnerships.
Such initiatives should foster awareness of legal drinking and purchase age requirements.
We commit to work with interested stakeholders, including those above as well as NGOs and IGOs, to develop, promote and disseminate educational materials and programs designed to prevent and reduce underage purchase and consumption. These initiatives should include consulting experts on the development of best practice educational materials for use by parents, schools, and community groups and in social media.
These initiatives should also promote accurate information about the penalties for breaking legal drinking age laws (both for underage drinkers as well as retailers, servers, and drinking establishments).
Enforcement in a complementary community context
Visible and consistent enforcement of legal drinking age laws and regulations by law enforcement authorities.
In addition to enforcement efforts by law enforcement authorities, we support a complementary range of school- and community-based prevention, education, and intervention activities, including activities implemented with retailers and servers.
It is important to emphasize and embrace the great value of family, school, and community involvement in all education, prevention, intervention, and enforcement activities.
All such efforts stand a better chance of success with a sense of commitment shared amongst families, educators, the alcohol industry, the hospitality industry, law enforcement, community groups, and young people under the drinking age themselves.
- 1. These positions do not pertain to religious occasions and ceremonies which may traditionally involve beverage alcohol, as well as parental serving of alcohol to children in the home.
In the majority of countries, governments set a minimum age at which it is legally permissible to drink and/or to purchase alcohol. Generally speaking, the legal purchase limit set by a local, state, or national government reflects the age at which it is deemed acceptable for individuals to consume alcohol.
That said, as the research indicates, in some countries, the legal ages for purchaseâ€”versus legal ages for consumptionâ€”vary. In addition, certain age limits differ according to on-premise and off-premise distinctions, the type of beverage alcohol being purchased or consumed, and whether the consumption is taking place with a parent present, or in the family home.
Issues related to legal drinking age tend to focus on disparities amongst age limits, inconsistent or ineffective enforcement of age limits, and harmful behaviors associated with alcohol abuse such as binge drinking.
Legal drinking age is most commonly understood to be the minimum legal age at which a person may purchase beverage alcohol in any given jurisdiction. However, it should be noted that the legal age for consuming alcohol and the legal age for purchasing alcohol are, in some instances, different age limits.
For the purposes of this discussion, unless otherwise indicated, â€œlegal drinking ageâ€ will be understood to be the legal age for the purchase of alcohol, whether on-premise (e.g., pubs, cafes, bars, restaurants) or off-premise (liquor stores, â€œstate stores,â€ supermarkets, etc.). Also for the purposes of this discussion, the concept of legal drinking age is understood to preclude religious occasions and ceremonies which may traditionally involve beverage alcohol, as well as parental serving of alcohol to their children in the home. (For similar and additional related content, see The Issues Forum entry on Underage Drinking.)
AGE LIMITS WORLDWIDE: A MIX OF DISTINCTIONS
In addition to making general distinctions between purchase and consumption, drinking age laws also distinguish specifically between the ages at which alcohol can be consumed and purchased on-premise (or “on trade”) and off-premise (or “off trade”). Legislation in some countries addresses on- and off-premise sales separately, while in other countries, it makes no such delineation. Where legislation makes the on- or off-premise distinction, the minimum age tends to be lower for off-premise purchase1. In addition, some laws assign different minimum ages based on the type of beverage alcohol being consumed or purchasedâ€”for example, beer or wine versus spirits (see table below). Some jurisdictions also apply age limits differently (or do not apply them at all) in circumstances which include parents being present or alcohol being served by parents at home.2, 3
APPENDIX I: MINIMUM AGE LIMITS WORLDWIDE4
COUNTRY MINIMUM DRINKING AGE MINIMUM PURCHASING AGE Algeria 18 18 Benin 20 20 Botswana 18 18 Burundi 16 16 Cameroon 18 21 Cape Verde 18 18 Central African Republic 18 18 Comoros None None Congo, Republic of 18 18 Egypt 21 21 Equatorial Guinea 18 18 Eritrea 18 18 Ethiopia 18 18 Gambia 18 18 Ghana 18 18 Kenya 18 18 Lesotho 18 18 Libya Illegal Illegal Malawi 18 18 Mauritius 18 18 Morocco None 16 Mozambique 18 18 Namibia 18 18 Niger 18 18 Nigeria 18 18 Seychelles 18 18 Sierra Leone None None South Africa 18 18 Swaziland 18 18 Uganda 18 * 18 Zambia 18 14 Zimbabwe 18 18
COUNTRY MINIMUM DRINKING AGE MINIMUM PURCHASING AGE Azerbaijan 18 18 Bahrain varies by religion varies by religion Bangladesh varies by religion varies by religion Bhutan 18 18 Brunei illegal illegal Cambodia None None China 18 18 India 18 to 25, depending on state 18 to 25, depending on state Indonesia 21 21 Iran Illegal Illegal Israel 18 18 Japan 20 20 Jordan 18 18 Kazakhstan 18 18 Korea (South Korea) 19 19 Kyrgyzstan 18 18 Lao PDR 18 18 Malaysia 18 18 Pakistan Illegal (21 for non-Muslim population) Illegal (21 for non-Muslim population) Philippines 18 18 Qatar illegal illegal Saudi Arabia illegal illegal Singapore 18 18 Sri Lanka 21 21 TaiwanÂ 18 18 Thailand 20 20 Turkey 18 18 Turkmenistan 18 18 United Arab Emirates Illegal Illegal Uzbekistan 20 20 Vietnam 18 18 Yemen Illegal Illegal
COUNTRY MINIMUM DRINKING AGE MINIMUM PURCHASING AGE Australia 18 18 Fiji 18 18 Guam 21 21 Kiribati 21 21 Micronesia 21 21 Nauru 21 21 New Zealand 18 18 Palau 21 21 Papua New Guinea 18 18 Samoa 21 * 21 Solomon Islands 21 21 Tonga 21 21 Vanuatu 18 18
COUNTRY MINIMUM DRINKING AGE MINIMUM PURCHASING AGE Albania 18 18 Andorra 18 18 Armenia 18 18 Austria varies by state and by beverage varies by state and by beverage Belarus 18 18 Belgium varies by beverage varies by beverage Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 18 Bulgaria 18 18 Croatia 18 18 Cyprus 17 17 Czech Republic 18 18 Denmark 18 varies by beverage Estonia 18 18 Finland 18 18 France 18 18 Georgia 18 18 Germany varies by beverage varies by beverage Gibraltar 18 18 Greece 18 varies by beverage Hungary 18 18 Iceland 20 20 Ireland 18 18 Italy 18 18 Latvia 18 18 Lichtenstein 16 for beer and wine;18 spirits 16 for beer and wine;18 spirits Lithuania 18 18 Luxembourg 16 16 Macedonia 18 18 Malta 17 17 Moldova 18 18 Monaco 18 18 Montenegro 18 18 Netherlands 18 18 Norway 18, but 20 for spirits defined as 22% ABV 18, but 20 for spirits defined as 22% ABV Portugal 18 18 Romania 18 18 Russia 18 18 Serbia 18 18 Slovakia 18 18 Slovenia 18 18 Spain varies by region varies by region Sweden 18 varies by beverage Switzerland varies by beverage and jurisdiction varies by beverage and jurisdiction Ukraine 18 18 United Kingdom 18 * 18
COUNTRY MINIMUM DRINKING AGE MINIMUM PURCHASING AGE Bahamas 18 18 Barbados 18 18 Belize 18 18 Bermuda 18 - Canada varies by province varies by province Cayman Islands 18 18 Costa Rica 18 18 Dominica 16 16 Dominican Republic 18 18 El Salvador 18 18 Grenada 16 none Guatemala 18 18 Jamaica 16 16 Mexico 18 18 Nicaragua 18 18 Panama 18 18 Saint Kitts and Nevis 18 18 Saint Lucia 18 18 Trinidad and Tobago 18 18 United States 21 * varies by jurisdiction
COUNTRY MINIMUM DRINKING AGE MINIMUM PURCHASING AGE Argentina 18 18 Bolivia 18 18 Brazil 18 18 Chile 18 18 Colombia 18 18 Ecuador 18 18 Guyana 18 * 18 Paraguay 20 20 Peru 18 18 Uruguay 18 18 Venezuela 18 18
As indicated by the examples in Appendix I, the most commonly legislated minimum age for both on-premise consumption and off-premise purchase is 18-years old, with lower limits in countries such as France and Denmark (16-years old for off-premise purchase), and higher limits in the United States, Indonesia, and Micronesia (21-years old for on- and off-premise purchase) and Japan (20-years old).
In addition, there are countries where the age limit scenarios become even more complex. For example, in Austria, for distilled spirits, the minimum age for purchase and consumption is 16-years old in three of nine Federal States, and 18-years old in the six other Federal States (with some Federal States differentiating by alcohol content, legislating higher minimum ages for purchase or consumption of drinks with alcohol content of 12 percent Alcohol By Volume (ABV) or more). In Canada, the legal age for consumption or purchase is 18-years old in three provinces, but 19-years old in the remaining provinces. In India, on- and off-premise legal age limits range from 18 to 25, depending on the state. In Belgium, there is no minimum off-premise purchase age for wine and beer; in Brazil, there is no minimum off-premise purchase age for any kind of beverage alcohol.5
VARIATIONS IN THE LAW AND ENFORCEMENT IMPLICATIONS
Drinking age limits are largely a reflection of the cultural influences and collective societal values of any given community, state, or nation. In turn, these social norms tend to coincide with drinking patterns â€“ the styles, contexts, and cultural dimensions of drinking in societies worldwide.6Â The range of differences in societal practices and cultural drinking patterns is reflected in the array of rules and laws which dictate legal drinking ages around the globe.
Such variations in drinking age rules and laws present certain enforcement challenges. For example, young people below the drinking age under one set of laws may have easy access to alcohol in a nearby jurisdiction with lower age limits. The phenomenon of young people crossing borders to circumvent legal drinking age requirements has been linked in research to problems such as alcohol-impaired driving and binge drinking. As a result, in some parts of the worldâ€”for example, within the European Unionâ€”there has been public debate about harmonizing alcohol policies from country to country in order to reduce the risk of potential harms associated with young people crossing borders for the purpose of purchasing and/or consuming alcohol.7
Research has consistently reinforced the finding that visible and effective enforcement of drinking laws is the key to the success of legislation, including drinking age limits.8Â More specifically, studies of the effects of increased enforcement show it to be a highly effective way to reduce alcohol sales to minors. For instance, targeted enforcement efforts with high visibility such as compliance checks on retail alcohol outlets have been found to typically cut rates of sales to minors by at least 50 percent.9
In addition to enforcement activity focused on retail outlets, personnel in on-premise settings may be trained to enforce minimum age limits by requiring proper identification of patrons who might potentially be underage. Enforcement efforts and methods may also include penalties for underage drinkers which are linked to their driving privileges (e.g., revocation or suspension), as well as fines or revocation of serving licenses for establishments who are in violation of legal drinking age laws and regulations.
Despite its pivotal role, enforcement of minimum drinking age laws, in many countries, has been shown to be generally inconsistent and in many instances, only sporadically visible or effective.10
Moreover, in countries such as the United States where the 21-year old minimum legal drinking age is higher than in most jurisdictions worldwide, there is research which shows that youth under age 21 do in fact illegally obtain and consume alcohol. For example, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) issued by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration in the U.S. reports that more than one quarter (25.1 percent) of people aged 12 to 20 consumed alcohol in the past monthâ€”including11:
In addition, the annual Monitoring the Future survey results issued by the National Institute on Drug Abuse reflect that in 2011, the percentage of underage youth who admitted drinking an alcohol beverage in the prior 30-day period were represented as follows12:
Such findings, in addition to the perceived inadequacy of enforcement efforts on and around university campuses in the United States, have raised questions about the efficacy of the nationwide minimum drinking age limit of 21-years old. In 2008, college presidents from about 100 of the best-known U.S. universities called on lawmakers to consider a national debate about the possible benefits of lowering the drinking age from 21 to 18, suggesting that current laws may actually encourage binge drinking on campuses.
The Amethyst Initiative, which falls under the umbrella of the Choose Responsibility organization (www.chooseresponsibility.org), is based on a rationale that college students will drink whether it is legal or not â€“ but if it is illegal, are more likely to do so in a â€œculture of dangerous, clandestine binge-drinking.â€13Â In addition to a national debate on the drinking age, they are encouraging increased education possibly tied with licensing if the age were lowered. This is an aspect of the policy dialogue which draws focus to the United States, as it is one of only a few countries with a legal drinking age of 21.14Â The various viewpoints on this topic, however, touch on research and observations from around the world.
The marketing of beverage alcohol is a topic which has attracted a great deal of research, as well as media attention. In particular, there has been significant focus on the relationship between marketing and alcohol consumption by underage youth, as well as young peoplesâ€™ expectations about the experience they will have if they consume alcohol.
To briefly summarize this well-researched subject: Although a causal link between advertising and underage consumption has not been established, a limited number of studies have shown modest correlations between advertising and alcohol consumption by underage youth and young adults who are of college age. Such studies have, in turn, been refuted by other research.15Â Yet the fact remains that advertising of alcohol beverages is a matter for serious policy consideration, especially where there is concern that such advertisements may in some way attract the attention of underage youth.
In its assessment of alcohol advertising in 2008, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) noted the importance of â€œchanging adult attitudesâ€ about teen alcohol consumption, citing it as one of the factors behind its launch of the â€œWe Donâ€™t Serve Teensâ€ consumer education program. The program targets parents and other adults with messages such as: â€œDonâ€™t serve alcohol to teens. Itâ€™s unsafe. Itâ€™s illegal. Itâ€™s irresponsible.â€ (For more information and research citations on this topic, see The Issues Forum entry on Underage Drinking.)
In April 2012, the FTC issued an order to 14 major beverage alcohol producers, including Brown-Forman, to provide data for the agencyâ€™s fourth major study of the industryâ€™s self regulation practices to reduce ads and marketing to underage youth. For the first time, the agency has requested information on Internet and digital marketing and data collection practices.16Footnotes Less
- 1. International Center for Alcohol Policies, Blue Book, Module 12. See: http://www.icap.org/PolicyTools/ICAPBlueBook/BlueBookModules/10DrinkingandPregnancy/tabid/171/Default.aspx
- 2. World Health Organization (WHO). (2011). Global status report: Alcohol and Health. Geneva, Switzerland.
- 3. It should also be noted that research shows that family members and peers represent the most significant influence in terms of how people learn to drink, and that often, parents are the first to introduce children to alcohol, inside the home. See: http://www.icap.org/PolicyIssues/YoungPeoplesDrinking/KeyFactsandIssues/tabid/218/Default.aspx.
- 4. Compiled by the International Center for Alcohol Policies. See: http://icap.org/table/MinimumAgeLimitsWorldwide.
- 5. International Center for Alcohol Policies. See: http://www.icap.org/PolicyIssues/YoungPeoplesDrinking/AgeLawsTable/tabid/219/Default.aspx.
- 6. Grant, M & Litvak, J. (Eds.) (1998). Drinking Patterns and Their Consequences. Washington, D.C: Taylor & Francis.
- 7. Clapp, J. D., Voas, R. B., & Lange, J. E. (2001). Cross-border college drinking. Journal of Safety Research, 32, 299â€“307. See: http://www.pire.org/detail2.asp?core=16804&cms=48.
- 8. Houghton, E., & Roche, A.M. (Eds.). (2001). Learning about drinking. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Wagenaar, A.C., & Toomey, T.L. (2002). Effects of minimum drinking age laws: Review and analyses of the literature from 1960 to 2000. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, (Suppl. 14), 206â€“225. See also: www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/SupportingResearch/Journal/wagenaar.aspx.
- 9. Grube, J.W. Preventing sales of alcohol to minors: Results from a community trial. Addiction 92 (Suppl. 2): S251-S260, 1997. Lewis, R.K., Paine-Andrews, A., Fawcett, S.B., Francisco, V.T., Richter, K.P., Copple, B. and Copple, J.E. Evaluating the effects of a community coalition's efforts to reduce illegal sales of alcohol and tobacco products to minors. J. Commun. Hlth 21: 429-436, 1996.
- 10. Wagenaar, A. C., Toomey, T. L., & Erickson, D. J. (2005). Complying with the minimum drinking age: effects of enforcement and training interventions. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 255â€“262.
- 11. Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Updated September 2012. See: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.pdf
- 12. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (December 14, 2011). "Marijuana use continues to rise among U.S. teens, while alcohol use hits historic lows." University of Michigan News Service: Ann Arbor, MI. See: http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pressreleases/11drugpr.pdf
- 13. See: www.Chooseresponsibility.org. See also Associated Press. (2008) College presidents seek drinking age debate. See also: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26271328/.
- 14. Brief history: In 1984, then-President Ronald Reagan signed the National Minimum Drinking Age Act, effectively setting a national minimum drinking age of 21â€”which all 50 states adopted by 1987. The legislation was based on the recommendations of a Presidential Commission Against Drunk Driving, established to make recommendations intended to reduce the number of alcohol-related deaths on the nationâ€™s highways.
- 15. See: Alcohol Marketing and Young People, International Center for Alcohol Policies. See: http://icap.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=EkpMOGhCHU8=&tabid=243 See also: http://icap.org/PolicyIssues/Marketing/KeyFactsandIssues/tabid/213/Default.aspx.
- 16. See: http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2012/04/alcoholstudy.shtm
PREVENTION AND EDUCATION
The primary rationale behind legislating minimum drinking ages is the prevention of certain harms which could result from underage youth consuming alcohol before they are physically or emotionally ready to do so. Yet research shows that imposing legal restrictions on access to beverage alcohol, in and of itself, is not an adequate prevention measure. Key influences such as parents, other family members, peers, educators, and role models contribute to young peoplesâ€™ choices about whether or not they decide to drink1.
In efforts to prevent and stop underage drinking, programs have been developed and customized for various audiences, with these key influencers in mind.
Most experts agree that parents talking with their children about drinking can play a key role in preventing the negative effects of underage drinking. For example, in the U.S., an ongoing public outreach campaign sponsored by SAMHSA, the Office of the Surgeon General, and the Ad Council encourages parents to speak with their children early and often about the negative effects of underage drinking, and offers tips for how to have these discussions2. For more on this subject, see The Issues Forum entry on Underage Drinking.
A number of intervention approaches have proven to be successful in influencing the decisions that underage youth make about alcohol. Early identification of problem drinking, followed by brief interventions aimed at modifying behavior, can help minimize harm among individuals who are alcohol abusers but not dependent. Such programs range from social norms marketing (aimed at correcting peer misperceptions) to server training programs and life skills programs in schools and communities3. Examples of such programs from across Europe are summarized in the annual EFRD/CEPS brochure on alcohol industry initiatives developed to help reduce alcohol-related harm (at www.efrd.org). In addition, examples of such efforts in the United States can be found at www.mystrongfamily.com and www.talkaboutalcohol.com.
RESPONSIBLE MARKETING AND AD PLACEMENTS
There are well-established industry codes for responsible marketing worldwideâ€”codes which comprehensively address the importance of marketing and advertising practices which are directed to only consumers of legal drinking age. These codes include the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS) Code of Responsible Practices for Beverage Alcohol Advertising and Marketing and similar codes of responsibility established by The Beer Institute and The Wine Institute, the European Spirits Association (CEPS), the European Forum for Responsible Drinking (EFRD) Common Standards on Commercial Communications, the Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia (DSICA), the Brewers Association of Japan and the Japan Spirits & Liquors Makers Association, and the Portman Group in the United Kingdom.
Two key elements of such codes are industry standards for ad content as well as ad placement. Ad content standards in the U.S. include commitments similar to those found in the Brown-Forman Marketing, Advertising, and Promotional Policy, which specifies that:
Ads should not feature children, cartoon figures, or anything that appeals primarily to persons below the legal drinking age.
There should be no suggestion that alcohol use represents a â€œrite of passageâ€ to adulthood.
There should be no suggestion that drinking alcohol is a means to attain success.
Models and actors employed must be a minimum of 25-years old, and appear to be at least 21-years old.
The U.S. industry standard for ad placements is a commitment to directing marketing to adults of legal drinking age, and to advertising only in media with audiences that are 70 percent legal drinking age or older (Brown-Forman has taken an additional step of planning our placements to deliver total cumulative impressions by brand and by media to average at least an 80 percent LDA audience. For more information, seeÂ http://www.brown-forman.com/responsibility/)Â 4.
ENFORCEMENT AND COMMUNITY
The importance of consistent and visible enforcement of minimum drinking age laws is supported by the research as well as by virtually all stakeholders on record in this arena5. In addition, as pointed out recently by the WHO, it is vitally important to take into account that â€œcommunity-based action, with appropriate engagement of different stakeholders, can effectively reduce the harmful use of alcoholâ€ and â€œâ€¦.bolster other policy measures at the community level”6.
THE STRONG INFLUENCE OF PARENTS AND OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS
A recent survey commissioned by the Foundation for Advancing Alcohol Responsibility (Responsibility.org) asked teens, ‘Where do you get the alcohol that you drink?’ Sixty-five percent of the underage youth surveyed said that they got the alcohol they drink from family and friends, meaning they got it from their parents, their friends’ parents, older siblings or family members or older friends, with or without permission. Education and prevention programs such as the Responsibility.orgâ€™s â€œReady or Notâ€ initiative stem from research results such as 97 percent of kids claiming they believe they have enough information to make the right decisions about drinkingâ€”yet half of the sixth through 12th graders surveyed reported drinking alcohol within the past month7.Footnotes Less
- 1. Houghton & Roche, 2001. See also: http://www.centurycouncil.org/underage-drinking/what-youth-say-about-alcohol
- 2. See: www.stopalcoholabuse.gov.
- 3. For a complete listing of targeted intervention examples worldwide, see: International Center for Alcohol Policies, Blue Book, Module 12. See: http://www.icap.org/PolicyTools/ICAPBlueBook/BlueBookModules/12LegalAgeLimits/tabid/173/Default.aspx.
- 4. Since 2006, Brown-Forman media buying plans have been designed to deliver at least 80 percent of total impressions to those LDA and above. See: http://brown-forman.com/responsibility/. For more information generally, see the ICAP Report (#9) on Self-Regulation of Beverage Alcohol Advertising at http://www.icap.org/PolicyTools/ICAPBlueBook/Annex2CodesofPracticeforSelfregulation/tabid/117/Default.aspx
- 5. Wagenaar, A.C., & Toomey, T.L. (2002).
- 6. Strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, report submitted to the 61st World Health Assembly, March 2008. See: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/2008/wha61/issues_paper3/en/index.html.
- 7. See: http://www.centurycouncil.org/news/press-release/2011/97-kids-believe-they-have-enough-information-make-right-decision-about